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By Frajzyngier, Zygmunt
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Hdi
Alveolar + + + Velar + + + - Two consonants in a cluster may have different values for the feature voice: snä 'know, hear", 'slaughter1, dzäwä-p-dzäwä 'he sold it'. Three-consonant clusters are allowed in the following configurations: continuant-stop-stop, stop-continuant-stop, stop-stop-stop. All three consonant clusters are allowed only in word-medial position, always representing a combination of different morphemes: Nasal-stop-stop: (26) kd-i-n-kda Tinish-AWAY-3-finish' 'he finished if Continuant-stop-stop: (27) kdä-f-kda särak.
Here are some illustrations of the operation of the rule. The negative existential verb is xädu 'lack, not to be'. When it is followed by its subject beginning with a vowel, the verb loses its final vowel. That vowel is replaced by the first vowel of the following word. 8. ' Vowel replacement and tone retention —» [xäd'-im-u wä] The genitive marker a is realized with low tone as ä if the preceding word ends in a vowel and has low tone: (97) zwän-i-ä kn —> [zwänä kri] child-PL-GEN dog 'children of dog' If a high vowel is not deleted, as is the case with grammatical morphemes, the high vowel becomes a glide, and its tone is also deleted.
The vowel is inserted in the first place where the violation of the syllabic structure oc- 30 2 Phonology curs. ' -> [kligidaghä] water -> [kligixa] If the syllable does not have its own tone, the tone of the epenthetic vowel the same as the tone of the source from which the vowel is copied (cf. 4 below): (56) b-d-i-d-f-ba build-ALL -AWAY -1 SG-UP-build -> [bididifbä] 'he built me [a wall]' The epenthetic vowel is a if the vowel in the next syllable is a: (57) mä kl-a-d-a-f-ka -» [mäklädäfkä] PROH take-EP-ALL-PVG-UP-2SG 'do not take it up there' If the tone position is the last position in the word, that is, if there is no following syllable in the same word, the epenthetic vowel is schwa.