Download A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking: Deciding What to Do by David Hunter PDF

By David Hunter

A realistic creation to severe pondering throughout a number of disciplines
Knowing tips on how to imagine seriously approximately what to think and what to do is vital for fulfillment in either educational environments. a pragmatic advisor to serious considering introduces readers to the innovations, equipment, and criteria for considering seriously approximately purposes and arguments in almost any zone of perform. whereas such a lot literature on severe considering makes a speciality of its formal functions inside philosophy, this publication bargains a vast notion of severe pondering and explores its functional relevance to accomplishing examine throughout a large choice of disciplines, together with enterprise, schooling, and the organic sciences.
While the publication pursues an interdisciplinary method of serious pondering, supplying examples and illustrations from assorted matters and fields of analysis, it additionally offers suggestions to assist readers determine the tools and criteria which are attribute of severe pondering of their selected branches of studying, of their place of work, and of their personal lives. the idea that of an issue is prolonged past its philosophical roots to incorporate experimentation, trying out, size, coverage improvement and evaluate, and aesthetic appreciation as actions that require severe considering. The logical, middle innovations of severe pondering are offered in a rigorous but casual method, with artistic and functional ideas for outlining, examining, and comparing purposes and arguments anyplace they're stumbled on. each one bankruptcy ends with a "Mistakes to Avoid" part in addition to a number of workouts designed to assist readers combine and expand the chapter's lessons.
A functional advisor to severe considering is a superb ebook for classes on severe pondering and common sense on the upper-undergraduate and graduate degrees. it's also a suitable reference for a person with a normal curiosity in severe considering abilities.

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F. H o w are freedom of action and freedom of belief alike? H o w are they different? g. What is an something? example of an emotional reason to believe h. What are emotional reasons not good enough for knowledge? i. List two ways in which emotions can be obstacles to critical thinking. CRITICAL THINKING A N D PERSONAL A U T O N O M Y 25 j . What is the difference between acceptable reasons and sufficient reasons? Give an example of reasons that are sufficient to believe something but not acceptable.

Critical thinking is concerned with the kinds of reasons that are needed to know something. There is another reason to follow the philosophical tradition here. If we separate off too sharply what we know from what we believe, then we run the risk of overlooking the fact that even our religious and moral beliefs need to be based on good reasons. It is true that we have and should cherish freedom of belief. Being able to form our beliefs free from outside interference and coercion is fundamental to h u m a n fulfillment.

This means that there are limits to the kinds of criticism that can be directed at our beliefs on such topics. But, and this is the crucial point, it does not m e a n that there are no epistemic standards against which our beliefs on these topics can be assessed. After all, freedom of belief is not restricted to moral and religious topics. We should also be free to m a k e u p our own minds about the weather, arithmetic, human evolution, and the best use of scarce public resources. O u r beliefs about the weather and about human evolution still need to be based on good reasons, even if we ought to be allowed to m a k e up our own mind on those topics.

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