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By F. J. Belinfante

A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories is a three-part ebook at the hidden-variable theories, referred during this ebook as ""theories of the 1st kind"". half I experiences the factors in constructing types of hidden-variables theories. the hunt for determinism ended in theories of the 1st style; the hunt for theories that appear like causal theories whilst utilized to spatially separated structures that interacted some time past ended in theories of the second one sort. elements II and III additional describe the theories of the 1st sort and moment type, respectively.
This booklet is written to make the literature on hidden variables understandable to those that are burdened via the unique papers with their controversies, and to typical reader of physics papers.

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The price of determinism Omitting {<£,} from the function n(\p, |, {φ,}), and therefore also omitting {0J from (63) as attempted by Jauch and Piron and by Kochen and Specker in (62), amounts to denying that the way in which a measurement is made could have an effect on the result of that measurement. These authors, of course, do admit that the question whether the measure­ ment will make the system's state condense onto φη is a meaningless question if φη is not at all among the set {φ^ of possible outcomes of the measurement.

So by measuring the energy of the atom we can determine, for the three orthogonal coordinate axes determined by the rhombic electric field, along which of these three axes is J2 = 0, and then J2 = h2 along the other two axes. ) More specifically, suppose we excite an orthohelium atom to its 23P0 state, from where, in absence of a rhombic field, it could drop down to any 23Si state under emission of a photon. However, we want to measure whether it ends up with its spin in the j,z-plane or in the ζ,χ-plane or in the x,j-plane; so, we want to know for which of three perpendicular direc­ tions chosen by us, we have J2 = 0 and Vn = l i n the final state, where for later convenience we define Vi = l-[Jf/h2] (i = x or y or z).

24) above, this cannot be a criterion by which to disqualify the theory, as the theory has neither need nor necessity for assuming relations like (53). See Appendix K for more on the Vop problem. Reason Two The second reason given by von Neumann 17 for the nonexistence of hidden-variables states is that they should be quantum-mechanical states represented by ensembles for which his axioms including our eq. (31) would be valid, and for which, additionally, for any observable A the postulate (Α>)ψ,ξ = ((Α)ψ,ξγ (54) would be valid.

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